A staggering number of different animals have been cloned by scientists around the world since the 1950s. Cloning, of course, is the procedure for producing genetically identical individuals. In nature this happens in all sexual reproduction, while it happens in sexual reproduction, through identical twins.
In 1963, Chinese embryologist Tong Dizhou became the first to successfully clone a fish when he inserted the DNA of a carp into the egg of a female carp. A decade later, Dizhou inserted Asian carp DNA into a European crucian carp to produce the first interspecies done.
CopyCat, the first cloned cat, was created in December 2001 by scientists from Texas A&M University. Though genetically identical with her host CC had a completely different personality. She was shy and timid. while her host was playful and curious.
Gene was the first cloned calf, born in February 1997 at the American Breeders Service facilities in Wisconsin, USA.
In 2015, Chinese company Boyalife announce a tie-up with Korean company Sooam Biotech to build a factory in Tianjin, China which will produce 100,000 cloned cattle annually beginning in 2016 to supply China’s growing market for quality beef.
Texas A&M University College of Veterinary Medicine produced the first cloned dear, Dewey, on May 23, 2003. The white tailed deer was cloned from tissue harvested from the skin cells of a dead buck.
Snuppy was the first dog to be cloned in April 2005 in South Korea. the puppy was created using a cell from an ear of an adult Afghan hound and involved 123 surrogate mothers, of which only 3 produced pups. Snuppy was the sole survivor. He has since been used in the first known successful breeding between cloned.
In December 2015, Sooam Biotech was reported to have cloned 700 dogs, charging customers dollar $100,000 for each cloned puppy. One puppy was produced from the cells of a dog that had died 12 days earlier.
6. FROG (TADPOLE)
In what was the first successful animal cloning, John Gardon then at Oxford University in 1958, produced a frog which reached the tadpole stage. He used intact nuclei from somatic cells of a Xenopus tadpole.
The first endangered species to be cloned was a species of wild cattle. A cloned gaur was born from a surrogate domestic cow mother in 2001 at the Trans Ova Genetics in lowa, USA. However, the calf lived for only 2 days.
Noori, the world’s first pashmina goat clone, was produced in March 2012 at the Sher-e-Kashmir university of Agricultural Sciences and Technology in India. The goats are known for their pashmina wool, the finest type of cashmere wool used to make Kashmiri shawls and scarves.
Prometea was the first cloned horse and the first to be born from and carried to its cloning mother. She was born on May 28, 2003 after a natural delivery and a full term pregnancy at the Laboratory of Reproductive Technology in Cremona, Italy. DNA tests confirmed she was a genetic twin of her mother.
The first Mouse cloned from adult cells, cumulina, was born in 1997 at the University of Hawaii at Manoa in the laboratory of Ryuzo Yanagimachi. Cumulina was a common house mouse and was named after the cumulus cells surrounding the developing oocyte in the ovarian follicle in mice. All other mice produced at Yanagimachi lab were known just by numbers. Cumulina lived for 3 years and was able to produce two healthy litters.
Scotland-based PPL therapeutics cloned piglets Millie, Christa, Alexis, C15arrel and Dotcom, born on March 5, 2000. The scientists from PPL therapeutics were also responsible for creating the famous cloned sheep Dolly 4 years earlier, and applied the same “nuclear transfer” technology using adult cells for producing the piglets.
BGI in China is the world’s largest Centre for cloning pigs. In 2014 it had the capacity to produce 500 cloned pics with an 80% success rate. Since pics are genetically similar to humans, the cloned animals are used to test for medications and the possibility of using pig organs for human transplant.
12. PYRENEAN IBEX
In January 2000, the Pyrenean ibex, one of four subspecies of the Spanish ibex, became extinct. Later in the year, Biotech company Advanced Cell Technology, Inc., with the approval of the Spanish government, embarked on a project to clone the Pyrenean ibex from tissue samples taken in 1999 from the last surviving ibex. The first cloning attempts failed. By 2003, one clone was born alive but died minutes later. This was the first attempt to revive an extinct species.
The rat is difficult to clone because rat eggs start to divide as soon as they are removed from the ovary in 2003, biologist Jean-Paul Renard and his team at the French National Institute for Agronomic research used a drug to inhibit cell division, giving them time to manipulate the cells. The researchers cloned 129 embryos which were implanted in female rats and three male pups were born. One pulated eyed girl who was the first born and he and his sibling went on to father a little of healthy pups.
The world’s most famous sheep, Dolly was the first mammal to be cloned from an adult somatic (mature) cell using the nuclear transfer process. She was cloned by scientists at the Roslin Institute in Scotland at the Biotech company PPL Therapeutics. Dolly was born on July 5, 1996 and died 5 months before her seventh birthday. The donor cell for cloning Dolly was taken from a mammary gland, providing that a cell taken from a specific part of the body could recreate a whole individual. She was able to produce six lambs – Bonnie; twins Sally and Rosie; and triples Lucy, Darcy and Cotton.
Two clone wolf pups were born on October 18 and October 26 in 2005. They are part of an endangered subspecies of gray wolf cloned by South Korean scientists. The two female cloned wolves were housed in South Korea for public view and were named Snuwolf and Snuwolffy, with the letters SNU standing for Seoul National University.